Gypsies, Roma, Travellers: An Animated History

The Roma are a people like any other, dispersed across many lands and territories over time and circumstance.
Editor’s note: The terms Gypsies, Roma, and Travellers are broad titles which describe diverse and different communities and are used in this article and film as general descriptors for the purpose of clarity. For a fuller discussion of these terms see the comments section below and Roma explainer at right.

Europe is home to 10–12 million Roma and Travellers, yet many Europeans are unable to answer the basic question, “Who are the Roma?” Even fewer can answer questions about their history.

It is a complex and highly contested narrative, partly because the “Roma” are not a single, homogeneous group of people. They can include Romanichals in England; Kalé in Wales and Finland; Travellers in Ireland (who are not Roma), Scotland, Sweden, and Norway; Manouche from France; Gitano from Spain; Sinti from Germany, Poland, Austria, and Italy; Ashakli from Kosovo; Egyptians from Albania; Beyash from Croatia; Romanlar from Turkey; Domari from Palestine and Egypt; Lom from Armenia, and many others. It is also partly because many of these groups have differing narratives of their history and ethnogenesis (their origins as an ethnic group).

The Roma do not follow a single faith, but are Catholic Manouche, Mercheros, and Sinti; Muslim Ashkali and Romanlar; Pentecostal Kalderash and Lovari; Protestant Travellers; Anglican Gypsies; and Baptist Roma. There are variations in practises associated with birth, marriages and death, yet also linked cultures that display subtle but distinctive patterns or, as a Roma preacher once described it, “many stars scattered in the sight of God.”

Yet there is much that is shared between different groups of Roma. Roma have a common lexicon in differing dialects of Rromanës, the Romani language. There are common notions around cleanliness codes and behaviors regarding what is Rromano (to behave with dignity and respect as a Roma person) and what can be seen as part of Rromanipé or the “Romani world view.”

Roma groups often have similar occupations, drawing upon traditions of peripatetic and mobile economies that exploit niche markets, such as peddling and trading certain livestock (horses, dogs, and small birds). Roma artisans have also made livings from repairing items deemed “uneconomic” to mend, such as pocket watches, tea-pots, and porcelain dishes—the originators of what is now described as the circular economy. Many Roma, Gypsies, and Travellers are engaged in recycling and have been for centuries, long before major environmental concerns. We were also healers and herbalists for the “country people.”

Mobility has, for many Roma, been part and parcel of identity. It’s “not all wagons and horses,” though, and Roma have been engaged with agriculture (as they still are in many places), artisan skills and automobiles trading, road repairs and roofing. Metal work of all kinds has always been part of the Roma economy, as has craft production (baskets and bamboo furniture, knives’ handles, carved and decorated wagons, fairground signs). Many groups’ names actually stem from occupations—the Balkan Sepetçiler are basket-makers (from the Turkish term for woven baskets) and represent a commercial skill that was used as the basis for organizing taxable communities in the past. Diversity in and amongst Roma groups has its origins in occupational identity, as much as in any other distinctions of culture.

What “binds” or unites the communities in all this rich diversity? The idea of a common heritage of exclusion certainly contributes to the sense of shared “pasts”—the notion of always being the “outsider,” the “other.” There are connections too in the languages; the important words for water, bread, road, blessings, luck, greetings, and farewells can be common to Rromanës dialects. Terms for horses, tools, numbers, and others are sometimes close enough in many cases that one Roma person can “trade” them with another—a favorite game in many communities, as language holds the “key” to our past in its core and “loan words,” gathered over time and migration routes. Language experts have identified these commonalities and drawn from this heritage to illuminate this shared past and heritage.

The notion of the historical journey, the narrative of “the long road of the Roma” over 1,000 years since leaving the Indian lands, is also strong in many Roma groups as a component of identity, with good evidence to support this. Just as not all Italians are descended from Romans and Etruscans, not all Roma groups are direct descendants of Hindus from the Punjab or Ganges basin. However, the point of the “imagined community” is not that it is literally a fiction, but rather that it is symbolically meaningful and has a purpose in bringing together individuals around common ideas of heritage and belonging to which broadly, we can subscribe. The Roma, in this sense, are a people like any other, dispersed across many lands and territories over time and circumstance.

The remarkable thing is that (as a famous historian of the Gypsies once noted), unlike many other peoples in this context, we have no one priesthood, no single holy book, no promised land to return to and yet we not only endure and survive, we truly live in the world. The need is to go beyond this and to flourish, to achieve equality and emancipation from poverty, exclusion, and misery, to become full citizens in the lands we inhabit and to achieve the kind of potential that the creative genius of our existence so far, clearly suggests we can reach.

77 Comments

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America is not perfect, yet we have some areas designated for those who travel and stay in tents or mobile homes (but they are not usually free). My understanding has been that most of these people have a P.O. Box "somewhere". Let's face this one fact. Everyone has got to pay taxes somewhere. Being able to pick your country, state, city etc. may be the beginning of the "equal status quo".

Well done Adrian, fantastic resource. Is it okay to share this through the Irish Traveller Movement (ITM) Facebook page & our website (www.itmtrav.ie). While it isn't about Irish Travellers it is a great resource and would be valued by our members for promoting positive images about the history of the Roma.

Again, well done and I certainly think that our members (Travellers and Traveller groups on the island of Ireland) would like to be involved in a similar resource developed- please get in touch

Thanks Damien and please share the video as widely as you wish! As I said above in response to another comment, I certainly hope to see resources around Irish Traveller and other non-Romani Traveller communities being developed to support better understanding of all the communities, both by the majority populations and by other Romani groups…

Good way to explain the history of Roma but I have one comment you don't mention Roma from Serbia. Anyway great job this should be shown in every school.

Vera, thanks for your comment. The short film really tries to provide an overview of Romani history, rather than looking at specific countries and the experiences of Roma, Gypsies, Travellers in each national case. The history of Romani groups in Serbia is not widely known, outside of the country itself, aside from sections in more general histories of the Roma - Angus Fraser's 'The Gypsies' or David Crowe's 'A History of the Gypsies of Eastern Europe & Russia'. Mattijs van der Port's interesting but controversial study, 'Gypsies, Wars & Other Instances of the Wild' is another source of information but much of the Serbian language material about Roma in the country remains untranslated and inaccessible for an English language audience. It would be great to see a response to this animation from Serbia - there have been some very good short animated films produced about Polish and Welsh Roman people. I hope you might like to work on such a project, for Serbian schools and audiences.

Thank you for this lively and information video. I am going to link to this from my blog on my wesbite: theriddleofprague.com. There are several Roma characters in my new YA novel. I hope that my readers will learn more about the Roma and the discrimination they have faced over the centuries.

Really good article Adrian, just one small comment, the language spoken in Romania is actually called Romanian not Rumanian :)

Roma are an ethnic group. Roma are an ethnic minority! The travellers and tinkers are a social group. The travellers are not an ethnic minority. Very impotent!

BRAVO!

Clever film about a big story.

im Romanichal my self i live in the u.s.a i see it all the time here on the news telling everybody to watch out for the gypsies and i really pisses me off about that but if we cant all come togather here and end all this all over the world our way of life will slip threw our fingures but most are will not do it becuase they hatred in our race runs deep for some but they need to let it go and start working togather

Not all gypsy speak Romani dialects, and they don't all share a common identity, the native Spanish Gitanos for instance call foreign gypsy by their land of origin. Many gyspy identify as being related to the ethnic groups they live.around, and in some cases their "gypsyness" is only a matter of having "traveller" heritage. The only thing all gypsy/travelers share in reality is a lifestyle or heritage connected to a lifestyle adaptation, and comon experience of discrimination at the hands of mainstream society. For me, the gitanos are an Ibero-Latin ethnicity, the Caminanti are Sicilians, Napulengre NeapolitanYifti Greek and Mechkari Vlach, ect ect

Thank you for the information.
Could you send me any explanation about the word
'ariçi', because this is the local name in Albania for Roma people.
Thank you, Xhevat Lloshi

@Xhevat Lloshi: I'm not sure how relevant it is, but "arici" (pronounced slightly different than ariçi) means hedgehog in romanian. It is derived from the latin word "ericius" and sounds more or less the same in italian - riccio.

I have a question! Out television is full of big fat gypsy weddings, and holidays. Mostly these seem to be
Irish travelers. Is this the case? And do Irish travellers and Roma mix with each other? Sharing camp sites and intermarrying.???

The movie is quite nice and informative and it was quite the time for a little history lesson about the gypsy/roma people and culture. Yet you got one fact wrong when reaching Romania they weren't made slaves they actually joined the rest of the people there, which were living in some sort of slavery. When the Romanians got their freedom so did the gypsy/roma (you could say they shared similar destinies afterwards in communism). People usually are confusing Romanians with the gypsy/roma people (poor name choice for their country) although except the similarity in the name pronunciation the two cultures have very little in common (although my Romania friend tells me they do like gypsy/roma music).

great job---

Thank you!

Most of the early history of Roma is now known. Please see www.romaniorigins.com
Roma are from Wakhan Valley. May see above website for more details.

Helpful for finding out about my grandmas people, she lived in Stow On The Wold. England.

Very detailed history of the Roma. Would like to know more about the Sintis. My grandmother was one. I'm very dedicated about their history and music.

I appreciate your well intended campaign to win respect and recognition for all peoples that suffer under the stigma of being 'Gypsies'.

However, I strongly advocate that you and your readers research deeper into the subject of the origins of each of the groups. I delve here in regards to the Roma.

The Roma people's origin is so shrouded with myths that even most Roma are not aware of their true past. Deeper study reveals that although they came to Europe from India during the middle ages - ca. 14th century, they are not Indians or Indo-Aryans by race. Instead they have Semitic origins! There are ample evidences that the Roma people are descendants of the Northern Kingdom of Israel that were taken into captive by the ancient Assyrians. Like many others of the northern Israelites the Roma are a remnant that fled to the Indus valley after their exile from Israel. Therefore they are not 'Jews' (since Jews are south Israelites). The evidences lie in their oral traditions, folk stories and their Romani purity laws. They share more parallels to the ancient diluted Israelite traditions (since the northern tribes did not adhere to the strict laws of Israel) than the hindu religion or traditions. There is an in depth thesis on this take here: http://www.imninalu.net/roma.htm
Truth and accuracy is crucial especially for people without a land of their own to know their true origins - a good starting point for a better future in any direction they choose to take.

While I appreciate the work and some of the qualifying statements in here, I have to disagree with some of the information. I am Sinti, therefore I am not Roma, but I am a Romany. Romanichals, Sinti-Manouche, Gitanos, etc are not Roma but all of them are Romanies. Travellers have a totally different origin so I wouldn't have included them in this article at all except maybe to point that out. I see some other people have pointed this out already.

Thanks for this lovely animation. My family are Sinti from Germany.

I cannot believe that you don't mention the Rudari(wood carvers) , the Calderash(cauldron makers), the Ursari (bear tamers), the Argintari(jewelers), the Baiesi (mining Roma), the Lautari (singers) , from Romania.There are still many Roma people living in Romania.Either in the traditional way, or integrated. Disclosing or hiding their background.Happy Roma Day to all.

The Egyptians Acts of 1533 and 1544 are the sole reason why "travellers" in UK and Ireland follow the same tradition as gypsies before them, but lack most of the genetic traits.
Slavery might not be the right word for romanian gypsies before 1850. Gypsy slaves were brought to Romania by mongol and tartar migrations. There is no consensus here, but surely they did not simply come as free travelers and suddenly got enslaved. These were indeed denied freedom and forced to work, but only state institutions and high aristocracy (which was directly linked to administrative functions) were allowed to own and trade them. Gypsy villages were "tied" to a specific land title and ownership would have been transferred only together with the land. Slave markets did not exist in Romania (nor other slaves than gypsies) so it wasn't possible or allowed to trade them freely.

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