Has Multiculturalism Failed in Europe?

Last Thursday, French president Nicolas Sarkozy joined the chorus of leaders from across Europe and denounced multiculturalism as a failure and the cause of home-grown “Islamic” terrorism. France being notoriously secular, this was no great surprise. It is not the first time that a European politician has slammed multiculturalism. This recent flame of criticism in the political sphere, however—re-ignited by Germany’s Angela Merkel and consequently fanned by UK prime minister David Cameron, Sarkozy, and more recently the deputy prime minister of the Netherlands—should not be dismissed.

Almost all of those who have spoken out against multiculturalism lately have accompanied their remarks with finger-pointing and scapegoating of a particular community.  In each case, the community happens to be both Muslim and a minority.

In last week's comments Sarkozy even makes reference to a Taliban-style Islam where all women are veiled, people are praying all over the streets, little girls are not allowed to go to school, and all imams preach violence in mosques. This is not an Islam, nor a France, that I recognize. Cameron put forth similar clichés around forced marriages and Islamist extremism in the UK.

It is this aspect of recent outcries about multiculturalism that is cause for concern. Undoubtedly, revised approaches to national identities and social inclusion are needed, but these statements singling out particular communities are not fostering feelings of belonging nor will they help build more inclusive societies.

Last week, I visited a school in North East London and listened to pupils and teachers sharing their experiences of belonging and identity. What struck me as I listened to them—Muslim, Christian, and of no faith, British and migrant—was their appreciation for living in a multicultural society, where they are valued and recognized for their differences as well as for their similarities.

It was not clear, however, that this feeling extended to a national sense of belonging: it is hard to hear a 15-year-old boy, born and brought up in the UK, talk about how he feels he might be “kicked out” of the country because of his ethnic and religious background.

In his speech on multiculturalism, David Cameron posed some questions which might be asked of Muslim organizations applying for government funding:

  • Do they believe in universal human rights—including for women and people of other faiths?
  • Do they encourage integration or separatism?

Maybe it is time to turn these questions around and ask what governments can do to make sure multiculturalism can help societies thrive.

Update February 22, 2011: Note that the clip subtitle contains a mistranslation: At 3.51', it states that Sarkozy is saying "we are a Catholic country"; the correct translation is "we are a secular country." (Thanks, Thomas!)

Update November 15, 2011: The video clip has been removed from this post as it is no longer publicly available on YouTube.

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The two questions David Cameron poses should be asked to and expected out of all groups asking for govt funding and expected out of everyone, not just Muslim groups. Diversity is a great thing, but certain fundamental actions and maybe even concepts (e.g. women must abide by different rules than men) should be forbidden for the general good of everyone.

I don't think Sarkozy is object to different cultures, he is objecting to disharmony. You can be multicultural, if the cultures all in synergy, however each culture that moves to independently oppose the unifying culture creates disharmony.

And an open society would, I'd argue, be in the same opinion. An open society could not be closed societies, independently opposing each others values.

Voltaire spoke eloquently on this. To paraphrase....place people of many cultures and faiths together and they'll get along pretty well......put just two together and they will fight endlessly.

If I may,

At 3.51', the subtitle of the video states that Sarkozy says that "we are a catholic country", however, this is a mistake. What President Sarkozy says, in fact, is "nous sommes un pays laïc", which can be translated into "we are a secular country", which makes more sense considering the following sentence.

Thank you for alerting us to this error in the subtitling, Thomas. We are updating the post now.

First of all, it must be noted that multiculturalism is being used as a synonym for white, whiteness, and white European values. So what is being objected to in the comments, it seems, and even in the article, is the distance from Europeanness that "other" cultures might have. For example, one commentator says that as long as women are the same as men, then they should be permitted to receive government funding. The clash seems to be, not that the Muslims are trying to convert the Europeans, but that the Europeans are having a difficulty with those among them who do not share the same cultural assumptions. One of the assumptions is that Europeanness represents "modernity"; represents the universal desire (or at least should), of all peoples in all places; that of course, what all peoples eventually want, or should want, is to be like them.

Our great poet and philosopher Rabindra Nath Tagore once said about India some 50 years ago that India is a country where The Aryan,The
saka,the huns, the muslims, the english, the chinese every body have come here and dispursed in the Indian culture. That is the very sole India. But in europe when people imigrates there donot dispurse in european culture even living there some generations. This is not the way to build a country. I think this is the problem in Europe where every body wants to hold their ethnical identity.

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